A Generic Fault-Tolerant Architecture for Real-Time by David Powell

By David Powell

The layout of computers to be embedded in severe real-time functions is a posh activity. Such structures must never basically warrantly to fulfill difficult real-time time cut-off dates imposed by means of their actual atmosphere, they have to warrantly to take action dependably, regardless of either actual faults (in undefined) and layout faults (in or software). A fault-tolerance strategy is essential for those promises to be commensurate with the security and reliability specifications of many existence- and mission-critical purposes. This ebook explains the motivations and the result of a collaborative project', whose target used to be to noticeably lessen the lifecycle bills of such fault­ tolerant structures. The end-user businesses partaking during this undertaking already set up fault-tolerant structures in severe railway, house and nuclear-propulsion functions. notwithstanding, those are proprietary platforms whose architectures were adapted to satisfy domain-specific standards. This has ended in very expensive, rigid, and sometimes hardware-intensive options that, by the point they're built, tested and licensed to be used within the box, can already be out-of-date when it comes to their underlying and software program technology.

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Interactive Consistency protocol (IC), which is a generalisation of Byzantine Agreement where each node sends its private value to every other node. It has been shown in the literature that, in the presence of m arbitrarily faulty nodes, agreement algorithms using authenticated messages require just m + 2 nodes 7, instead of 3m + 1 nodes without authentication, and that they must include at least m + 1 successive rounds of information exchange, sending private values or relaying previously-received values.

We have taken into account this property in the protocol, but not (for clarity reasons) in the figures. 1 Practical Properties The protocol implements two rounds of message exchanges between three or four nodes. 4), we claim that: 10 11 • When n = 4, one arbitrary fault (at most) can be tolerated. Of course this implies that one symmetric or one manifest fault can be tolerated as well. • When n = 3, two simultaneous faults can be tolerated, provided that at least one of them is not arbitrary". For example, one arbitrary fault and one manifest fault can be tolerated simultaneously.

2 to occur. Briefly, the technical trade-off is the following: • Assume the possible presence of Byzantine clocks. This leads to synchronisation algorithms involving several rounds of message exchange (dynamically managed at each cycle) and having a large skew between clocks (which could impede the genericity of GUARDS for some demanding applications). • Assume that there are no Byzantine clocks when there are only three channels, thanks to the broadcast nature of the ICN network. This allows the choice of a simple (static one-round message exchanges scheme) and efficient (small skew) algorithm.

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