A History of Probability and Statistics and Their by Anders Hald

By Anders Hald

WILEY-INTERSCIENCE PAPERBACK SERIESThe Wiley-Interscience Paperback sequence comprises chosen books which have been made extra available to shoppers so as to elevate international charm and normal move. With those new unabridged softcover volumes, Wiley hopes to increase the lives of those works through making them to be had to destiny generations of statisticians, mathematicians, and scientists.From the reports of historical past of likelihood and data and Their purposes prior to 1750"This is a fabulous e-book . . . somebody with the slightest curiosity within the heritage of statistics, or in figuring out how glossy rules have built, will locate this a useful resource."–Short booklet reports of ISI

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1 edited by E. S. Pearson and M. G. Kendall (1970) and Vol. 2 edited by M. G. Kendall and R. L. Plackett (1977). A Bibliography of Statistical Literature Pre-1940 has been compiled by Kendall and Doig (1968). ). For the biographies we have of course used the Dictionary of ScientiJic Biography, edited by C . C. Gillispie (1970-1980) and the individual biographies available. As reference books for the history of mathematics we have used Cantor (1880-1908) and Kline (1972). , so that papers were read some years before they were published.

The purpose of the present chapter is to refresh the reader’s memory on some of the salient historical facts before 1650. It is, however, not possible to point to a simple causal explanation of the development of probability and statistics in terms of these facts, but the record should make it easier for the reader to review and to grasp the spirit of the time. The exposition is necessarily very brief; it is also biased in the sense that it concentrates on the most conspicuous events in the development of mathematics and natural philosophy, and it emphasizes those events that are of particular interest for the history of probability and statistics.

In the 16th century considerable progress was made in arithmetic, algebra, and trigonometry. 2 ON MATHEMATICS BEFORE 1650 15 numbers came gradually into use. ” The decimal system of notation was introduced for fractions, replacing the ratio of two integers. Two prominent Italian mathematicians, Niccolo Tartaglia (c. 1499-1 557) and Girolamo Cardano (1501-1576), wrote textbooks containing new results in arithmetic and algebra. For example, they gave methods for the solution of equations of the third and fourth degrees, and Cardano noted that the number of roots equaled the degree of the equation.

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