By Wolfgang Becker
This publication is an try to bridge the space among the instrumental rules of multi-dimensional time-correlated unmarried photon counting (TCSPC) and usual purposes of the process. Written through an originator of the strategy and by way of sucessful clients, it covers the elemental rules of the process, its interplay with optical imaging equipment and its software to a variety of experimental projects in lifestyles sciences and medical research.
The ebook is suggested for all clients of time-resolved detection thoughts in biology, bio-chemistry, spectroscopy of dwell structures, dwell mobilephone microscopy, medical imaging, spectroscopy of unmarried molecules, and different purposes that require the detection of low-level gentle signs at single-photon sensitivity and picosecond time resolution.
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Additional resources for Advanced Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting Applications
The principle is shown in Fig. 21. The memory of the TCSPC device is split in two independent memory banks. When the measurement is started the sequencer starts to record in the ﬁrst waveform block of the ﬁrst bank. After a deﬁned acquisition time it switches to the next waveform block until all blocks of the Fig. 20 Photochemical transient of chlorophyll in a live plant. Time per curve 100 µs, 10,000 on/off cycles were accumulated. Time-series starts from the front 1 Introduction to Multi-dimensional TCSPC 21 Memory Bank Swapping Memory Memory Bank 1 Bank 1 Time Measurement Bus Interface Sequencer Readout Time Measurement Readout Bus Inter- Sequencer Memory Bank 2 face Memory Bank 2 Fig.
The result has a high signal-to-noise ratio, despite of the short time per curve. The procedure shown above does, of course, not require that the data in each step of the time series are only a single waveform. The data can be multi-dimensional themselves. The steps of the sequence can contain multi-wavelength data, data recorded with laser multiplexing, or combinations of both. Time-series recording can even be combined with imaging, see Sect. 4, and Chap. 2, Sect. 4. Time-Series With Memory Swapping Modern TCSPC modules have space for hundreds if not thousands of waveforms in their internal memories.
In other applications with no more than four channels routing systems are more and more replaced with fully parallel TCSPC systems [21, 76]. Routing is used, however, to further extend parallel TCSPC systems and to obtain large detection channel numbers with single TCSPC modules. Typical applications are diffuse optical imaging by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and multi-wavelength TCSPC. NIRS systems with up to four TCSPC channels and 32 detectors (8 for each TCSPC channel) are used [48, 49].