Animal and Human Calorimetry by J. A. McLean

By J. A. McLean

This quantity offers a entire survey of the speculation, perform, and strategies of calorimetry as utilized to the examine of power metabolism in people and animals. Calorimetry is used to estimate dietary necessities of guy and farm cattle and to judge assorted meals. it's also a strong device utilized in study into basic dietary and physiological lifestyles procedures and within the evaluate of stresses imposed through irregular or critical environments. it really is presently being utilized in a number of branches of clinical learn and will be used as a diagnostic software in hospitals for research of metabolic problems. The authors speak about either direct calorimetry, which measures warmth loss without delay, and oblique calorimetry, the place warmth loss is inferred via dimension of a few of the chemical byproducts of metabolism. additionally, information is supplied to the instrumentation, technical difficulties, and precautions essential to receive exact calorimetric measurements.

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The crucible is then mounted in a holder fixed to the lid of the bomb. The holder additionally acts as an electrode; a second electrode also projects from the bomb lid. The electrodes are connected by a length of nickel chromium or platinum wire to which is tied a piece of cotton thread; the other end of the thread is placed firmly in contact with the sample (both lengths are constant from determination to determination). Oxygen is introduced via a valve in the lid and the pressure 26 Calorific equivalents in the bomb raised to 3 MN m"2 (30 atmospheres).

The subject wore a facemask equipped with lightweight valves to separate inspired from expired air. A logical development from this was the Douglas (1911) bag, in which the collection vessel was a rubberised bag carried on the back of the subject. Such total collection methods were of course limited by the size of the collection vessel required to contain all the air breathed out. To overcome this, mask methods were developed using the RegnaultReiset principle of recirculation and absorption of carbon dioxide and water vapour.

Although the method is capable of very high precision and accuracy, it is slow and laborious. However, it is now possible to add micro-processor control to the calorimeter to remove the routine manual monitoring of temperatures and to carry out the calculations. Furthermore several calorimeters can be controlled by a bench-top computer; this can provide automatic triggering of the individual firing circuits once the computer detects that an initial steady state temperature has been achieved. The computer can determine the increased steady state temperature after combustion of the sample.

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