By Ronald A. Kleinknecht PhD
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Additional info for Mastering Anxiety: The Nature and Treatment of Anxious Conditions
Freeman, 1975). , p. 112. : Doubleday, 1961). Richard Price, Abnormal Behavior: Perspectives in Conflict, 2nd ed. (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1978). Walter Cannon, Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear and Rage, 2nd ed. (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1929). Richard Lazarus, Psychological Stress and the Coping Process (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966). Ronald Kleinknecht and Joseph Lenz, "Blood/Injury Fear, Fainting, and Avoidance of Medical Treatment: A Family Correspondence Study," Behaviour Research and Therapy 27 (1989): 537-547.
Through these early experiences of anxiety associated with the exposure to the demands of society and progression through the stages of psychosexual development, the ego and superego become more or less developed. In the relatively normal person, these structures are generally able to cope with the anxiety generated by perceived dangers or threats from the id. This coping is accomplished through the use of ego defense mechanisms. It is through these defense mechanisms that the ego defends itself against the anxiety associated with the id's incessant demands for immediate satisfaction of sexual and/or aggressive urges.
These early identified reaction patterns tended to persist over the years, suggesting that these fearlike behavior patterns were inborn temperaments. However, even if inborn, these patterns are potentially modifiable by interactions with parents and others. More recently, similar observations have been made in different contexts that also suggest that extreme shyness may be an inborn trait. Jerome Kagan, a prominent child psychologist at Harvard, also investigated a group of children over a period of years.